‘Sober September’ Recovery Month

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Every start of a new year, many people set goals with most of them resolving to quit or try and curb their drinking habits. This is termed as Dry January– the name for when people refrain from drinking any alcohol as a personal challenge. But the push for sobriety is gaining momentum and there is a month to reinforce it: Sober September.

Sober September is all about a month-long challenge for folks who want to revamp or take a break from their relationship with alcohol. The choice not imbibe coincides with the National Recovery Month, which is considered as month of renewed energy.


Sober September may have been born out of people’s attempts to have a calmer month in between all that hype and torture experienced throughout the year. And with September’s back-to-school feel, some people take it as a time to detox from alcohol as well.

However, some credit can also be given to our friends across the pond — since England-based charity Cancer Research UK was credited with creating Sober September back in 2016. Either way, #soberseptember is spreading quickly on social media and becoming the new “Dry January” in no time.

Although the media coverage of the sobriety “trend” can be somewhat annoying to those of us in recovery and being a “sober tourist” can be sometimes problematic, it’s hard not to applaud anyone who is interested in taking a hard look at their drinking and stopping, even if just for a short time.

With the undeniable harms of alcohol, anyone who wants to take a step back from boozing is welcome in the sober club.


Recently, a study published in The Lancet concluded that no amount of alcohol is safe to drink. Beyond that, the CDC reports that the short-term health risks of excessive drinking include things such as injuries, violence, alcohol poisoning, risky sexual behaviors, and miscarriage or stillbirth. They also list long-term effects to be many chronic diseases and other serious conditions such as high blood pressure and heart disease, certain cancers, learning and memory problems, mental health issues, social problems, and of course alcohol use disorder.

Of course, those are all terrifying statistics if you’re looking to completely change (and let go of) your relationship to alcohol. But what are the benefits of doing something like the 30-day alcohol-free challenge of Sober September? Well, there are several.


First, think about the real reasons why you are sober curious. Are you hoping to get better sleep this month? Are you wondering what your body will feel like after no booze? Are you wanting to avoid hangovers after a summer of a bit too much excess? Are you wondering if your drinking may be going too far and you want to calm it down a bit? Either way, figure out your “why” before plunging into the Sober September trend. Then, get a notebook and keep track of how you feel, including cravings and moods, every day of the month.

Second, read up on what a sober month might entail. This won’t be all easy-peasy for you because it’s not always simple to be the only sober person in the room, so you might want to make sober friends or even find a sober date. If you’re lucky enough to live in a city with a sober bar, you can try that too — but I also highly recommend that you try some fun, sober activities with friends, too.

And last but not least, learn a bit about what recovery is actually about. Go to an open recovery meeting or check out an online sober community, talk to people about why they quit drinking, consider what it means to be a gray area drinker, recognize that you don’t have to hit rock bottom in order to stop permanently, and connect with others who are sober this month as well as those who are in recovery. There is always something that you can learn from people who have been there before.

And whether or not you decide to make Sober September a permanent fixture on your yearly calendar, a one-time experiment, or a lifelong journey into recovery, be sure that you’re open to wherever this journey takes you — the good, the bad, and the undoubtedly ugly crying that so often happens to us in early recovery. Or, at least, in early alcohol-free trials.

Increasing cases of Sexual and Gender based violence during COVID-19

Illustration of Gender based violence: Photo Courtesy

The COVID-19 pandemic has severely disrupted the normal functioning of populations around the world and continues to proliferate indiscriminately.

COVID-19 threatens the health of all, but women and girls are adversely affected. The very measures taken to protect populations and keep health systems afloat leave women and girls especially vulnerable to violence.

Sexual and gender based violence is one of the consequences of COVID-19. As governments implement health policies such as lockdown and quarantine measures, most people are confined with their abusers.

COVID-19 has exacerbated existing inequalities for women and girls, as well as discrimination of other marginalized groups including LGBTQ+ people, people living with disabilities, older people, migrants, refugees and those in extreme poverty.

This has made it harder for health workers to appropriately screen cases of gender based violence as most health facilities are overwhelmed by COVID-19 cases.

In Kenya, cases of sexual, gender-based and domestic violence have increased significantly since the country began its response to the virus. In China, domestic violence reports nearly doubled after cities were put under lockdown, with 90% related to the epidemic.


Helpline calls of distress have increased in France, Lebanon, Malaysia, Singapore, South Africa among many other countries.

According to the World Health Organisation, 35% of women around the world have already experienced some form of sexual and gender-based violence in their lifetime. In some crisis settings, this number skyrocketed to more than 70%.

Women Protesting against gender based violence: Photo Courtesy

Most governments have been carried away with COVID-19 response, leaving the independent women group single most factor in addressing sexual and gender based violence.

To ensure that the society maintains its gender sanity the government must put some punitive measures to end sexual and gender based violence .

All protective services for women and girls must be classified as “essential” during any disaster. Domestic violence hotlines, safe spaces, sexual and reproductive health services, referral pathways, and justice mechanisms are necessary in pre-pandemic times, and even more important in crisis.

Governments should identify organisations already focused on sexual and gender-based violence and give them the tools and resources to continue supporting women and girls during the pandemic. Since social distancing limits screening opportunities, these organisations should explore alternate entry ways for women to access care, especially in places like supermarkets and pharmacies.

As hospitals and clinics deal with infected patients, the health sector should collaborate with gender-violence organisations to deliver services creatively and strengthen referral pathways in accordance with virus mitigation measures.

High-quality clinical care for survivors should be accessible at all times. Community gatekeepers including religious, traditional, women, and youth leaders should play a key role in both virus and violence mitigation initiatives. They can also serve as early warning and alert groups within the community.

How To Choose An Insurance Company

Choosing an insurance company is not as simple as just finding the lowest premium. Anybody at certain times can have the lowest premium and often is not your best interest. 

To easily choose an insurance company, here is the criteria one must consider whether it is for you home, business, life insurance, disability or whatever.

  • How Responsive Is The Insurance company

You can never know this when going through the process of choosing an insurance company. But you need to do your own investigation. Find out from testimonials or even better get referrals from people who are using the insurance company. You need to get a rapid response.

  • How Good Is Their Technology On The website

You ask yourself, are you able to access information from their website? How much easier will it be doing business with them?


Mental Health: Reach Out to Curb Depression

Mental Health: Understanding Excessive Attention Seeking Behaviour as a Personality Disorder

Toxic work culture is killing vibrant brands and top talents

Injecting Momentum to prevention of gender based violence during COVID-19

  • Are they friendly People to Deal With

When you call the service center or agent, you need to establish if they are friendly. You also need to find out they are willing to go an extra step.

  • How Timely are They

By going out to find referrals and testimonials helps a lot in this case.

  • Do They Have A Data Competitive premium

It does need to be the lowest but they have to be competitive in offering protection for you, your family or your business.

OPINION: Male Child is almost worthless without money


Society has made the male child almost worthless without money and other material possessions.

Let’s have a dispassionate conversation on a post I saw on twitter about men. What do you honestly think about this anonymous person’s thoughts about men?

“The reason most men are so obssessed with achievements is because nobody cares about men, including the majority of men. The closest thing you can get as a man to being cared about, is being cared about because you’re useful.

Implicit to the role of provider is not being loved for who you are but what you can do. True love is rare. Most people are just using each other out of prtacticality.

Men have no inherent value.Women and children are valued for simply existing. This is why boyhood to manhood is an especially rough transition for males. Because they are no longer loved for simply existing. Their worthiness must be proved, or they are nothing. And no one cares . Women preserve their value, men create it. This is why the average woman is more valuable than the average man.

Sucess is not a lifestyle of choices for men. It’s a matter of life and death. It is a lifestyle choice for women. A woman who fails at academia or business can just give up and become a mother. She will be wanted for who she is. Who is interested in a loser man? NOBODY!”

Keep your thoughts coming, let’s have a sober discourse. Do you think what this person said is the truth?

My Five-star vision choked life out of us, it broke us

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My last relationship taught me that there are people who are sincerely predisposed to the simple life: To sleep & wake up to their partners; to go to their small job & its trifles; to raise kids, to go to church on Sundays. & later die as quietly as they lived. And that it’s okay.

Unlike me, she didn’t want the world. Didn’t want the fame. Didn’t care for the money. Not like I did. And in my oblivion, I would wake up at 3:00 am. Sleep at 11:00 pm. To get her all the good things I thought she needed. But instead, I was taking away everything she needed.

Photo: Courtesy

I look back & I realize that sometimes we unintentionally impose our visions onto our partners. Never asking what they wanted & deciding whether we can meet it. In my quest for ultimate success, I slowly but surely choked the life out of us. I gained the world, but I lost us.

And back then the question that I would ask myself looking at her was; “how could you be satisfied with so little?” I attributed it to a lack of vision/mediocrity/ignorance. In such moments we forget that these people are adults like us. That they also have their visions.

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It bothered me that she didn’t want to expand her boutique It was doing well, but I am the kind of man who doesn’t know when to stop. I want the world. But at some point, you are going to have to stop & let your partners be. And that if you must proceed, you’ll have to do it alone.

There are partners who don’t want eccentric fame/wealth. They want money, but just enough to keep you guys comfortable. They may support you in your pursuit of the world, but they aren’t a mini you. You’ll gain the world, & lose your heart. I held the world, but I was empty.

One day the world comes tumbling down. And you’ll turn back home, hoping to find your partner’s outstretched arms, only to run into an empty hall. Yes, you’ll rebuild. But you need not have to if you struck a balance. Believe me. You don’t want to be alone on a stormy night.

Mental Health: Reach Out to Curb Depression

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  • Stop ignoring that friend who suddenly went broke after loss of job or business. Reach out.
  • That single mother playing independent is not fine. Reach out.
  • That jobless drunk brother who has been branded ‘useless’ by your friends and family. Reach out.
  • That beautiful woman who you think has it all. She is not fine. Reach out.
  • Your sister/brother/in-law/colleague who suddenly became lazy, withdrawn and rude.
  • Suicide is not selfish. It is selfish to remind a depressed person that suicide will only transfer the pain to others. There is no pain in death. Depression seeks that peace. Reach out.
  • No. A bottle of whiskey is not reaching out.
  • And Paybills after suicide is HYPOCRISY. Reach out to your friend’s.


Mental Health: How Borderline disorder is affecting intimate relationships

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Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is pushing most intimacy relationships past the brink of intimacy. If you’re a lover of RnB music, then certainly you’ve heard Brandy’s new song ‘Borderline.’

The Grammy-winning songstress in the visuals of the song portrays a woman so in love that’s she borderline insane, we see Brandy sporting a copper toned blown-out style, while singing in a padded cell. She warns the lover of her potentially manic ways, singing, “Never ever cheat, never lie to me / I’m the most jealous girl in the whole wide world / Don’t you ever hurt me, I’ll change on you.”

Brandy through the scenes seem to represent the loneliness and paranoia falling in love with the wrong person can bring. It’s also worth noting that the singer isn’t making fun of mental illness here, with her even adding a message for those dealing with mental health issues that includes information to contact the National Alliance on Mental Illness.

The song perfectly explains how an intimacy relation with someone with BPD feels like. Those type of relationships are often chaotic, intense, and conflict-laden. This can be especially true for romantic BPD relationships.

If you’re planning to start a relationship with someone with BPD, or are in one now, you need to educate yourself about the disorder and what to expect. Likewise, if you have been diagnosed with BPD, it can be helpful to think about how your symptoms have affected your dating life and romantic relationships.

Photo: Courtesy

Just like Brandy states in her lyrics, people with BPD are often terrified that others will leave them. However, they can also shift suddenly to feeling smothered and fearful of intimacy, which leads them to withdraw from relationships. The result is a constant back-and-forth between demands for love or attention and sudden withdrawal or isolation.

Abandonment sensitivity is also among the symptoms that impact most relationships. This can lead those with BPD to be constantly watching for signs that someone may leave them and to interpret even a minor event as a sign that abandonment is imminent.

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Impulsive sexuality is another classic example of BPD. A large percentage of people with BPD are nursing trauma from past sex escapades and experiences such as rape, child sexual abuse , which makes intimacy very complicated.

Another common complaint of loved ones in borderline relationships is lying. While lying and deception are not part of the formal diagnostic criteria for BPD, many loved ones say lying is one of their biggest concerns; this can be because BPD causes people to see things very differently than others.

Other symptoms of BPD in a relationship include impulsivity, self-harm,and dissociative symptoms, which can have an indirect impact.

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Given all the difficulties that exist in BPD relationships, why would anyone start a relationship with someone with the disorder? First, it’s important to remember that despite these intense and disruptive symptoms, people with BPD are frequently good, kind, and caring individuals.

Often they have many positive qualities that can make them great romantic partners some of the time. Furthermore, many people who have been in a romantic relationship with someone with BPD talk about how fun, exciting, and passionate a BPD partner can be.

Photo: Courtesy

But the relationship is not always a bed of roses. BPD people seek perfection. This is where reality sets in. When a person with BPD realizes that her new partner is not faultless, that image of the perfect (idealized) soul mate can come crashing down. Because people with BPD struggle with dichotomous thinking, or seeing things only in black and white, they can have trouble recognizing the fact that most people make mistakes even when they mean well.

At this stage, if you’re struggling to find someone to love you with all your faults then you might lose your lover.

Photo: Courtesy

The key to maintaining a relationship with someone with BPD is to find ways to cope with these cycles and to encourage your BPD partner to get professional help to reduce these cycles. Sometimes partners in BPD relationships are helped by couples therapy.

Again I refer to another song by Brandy,’ Camouflage.’ You cannot just give up on love just because your partner has BPD. You have to devise means to make it happen, because flaws are part of who we are.

In addition to couples therapy, for the person with BPD, there are therapies that have been shown to be effective in terms of helping with relationships:

  • Dialectal Behavior Therapy (DBT):DBT is a form of cognitive behavioral therapy that relates a person’s thinking to their behavior. There are four main skills taught in DBT, and one of them is managing interpersonal skills.
  • Mentalization Therapy (MBT):MBT is a therapy that focuses on helping someone make sense of what is going on in their mind and the minds of others.
  • Medications:There are currently no medications approved to treat BPD, but they are sometimes prescribed by doctors to help improve certain symptoms of borderline personality disorder. Research suggests that certain medications can help a person manage their anger, impulsivity, and depression. On that note, though, it’s important to weigh carefully the side effects of a medication with its potential benefit.

But what happens when the relationship hits a dead end? Of course most people will think of a break up. Remember your partner has intense fear of abandonment . At this point, for a break up will require some professional mental help and a network of support for both of you.

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However, this is not a discouragement. Most people with BPD have good romantic stories to tell. They are couple goals inspiring many, So don’t give up on love, keep loving, keep trying, one day it will work.

Wildebeest Migration in Maasai Mara amid Covid-19 (Video)

Wildebeest Migration; Photo Courtesy

The great wildebeest migration is one of the most phenomenal natural spectacles in the world. It is an annual movement by millions of wildebeest, accompanied by large numbers of zebra, Grant’s gazelle, Thompson’s gazelle, elands and impalas across the greater Masai Mara-Serengeti ecosystem.

It is been a month since this annual wildebeest migration took off and still no tourist to witness the spectacle.

The wildebeest, also known as gnu, is a stocky ox-like African antelope with a drooping mane and beard, a long tufted tail and curved horn.

From July to around October ,the Mara welcomes the Great Migration of thousands of wildebeest and zebra from the Serengeti in Tanzania to Masai Mara in Kenya. During the wildebeest migration, you will witness how the constant battle for survival makes the Migration Season a particularly exhilarating time to visit Base-camp.

The Mara River crossing activity is considered the climax of the migration period. Mara River crossing is an event that will take you through a range of emotions: anticipation, heartache, inspiration, excitement and so much more. The sheer sight of the first herds of animals rushing into the crocodile-infested river will make you long for this wildebeest migration every year.

a short video of Wildebeest Migration

Traditionally, the migration has lit up tourism in the country, with thousands of tourists visiting the reserve to witness the animals crossing over. But, hotels, lodges and tented camps in Maasai Mara have remained closed since March due to the Covid-19 pandemic, a few which are open are receiving just a handful of tourists.

The yearly migration, which is termed as the eighth wonder of the earth ,begins in the south of the Serengeti, where more than half a million calves are born between January and March. But when the rains end in May or June, the land dries fast and the grazers must move on, heading for their dry season refuge in the Mara.

Wildebeests grazing: Photo Courtesy

After entering the Mara, the animals head northwards towards River Talek, where they graze and mate.

The migration also brings with it lions, cheetahs, leopards, hyenas and other carnivores that prey on the wildebeest, with wildlife lovers enjoying dramatic hunting scenes, with the tall grass giving the hunters ample camouflage.

From July to October, the wildebeest move between the western and eastern sides of the river, crossing it at different points almost daily.

With the absence of tourists the government of Kenya is expected to lose over 2.4 billion in terms of revenue.

Video; Courtesy

Mental Health: Understanding Excessive Attention Seeking Behaviour as a Personality Disorder

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Most people are most probably not aware that excessive attention seeking behaviour is a mental issue known as Histrionic Personality Disorder (HPD). This is part of a larger group of psychological disorders, called “Cluster B” personality disorders. Disorders in this category are generally categorised as being dramatic, emotional, or erratic.

People with this disorder are uncomfortable or feel unappreciated when they are not at the centre of attention. Typical behaviour may include the constant seeking of approval or attention , self-dramatisation and theatricality. They often base their self-esteem on the approval of others. This creates a need to be noticed.

Women are diagnosed with HPD more often than men. That may be because men report their symptoms less often than women.

The first step to knowing whether you engage in attention seeking behaviour is to know precisely what it means. Attention seeking behaviour is quite simply doing things that are likely to get others to notice you. Any number of behaviours could fall under this category.

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According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th edition), people with histrionic personality disorder have at least five (or more) of the following symptoms:

  • Is uncomfortable in situations in which they are not the centre of attention
  • Has interactions with others characterised by inappropriate sexually seductive or provocative behaviour
  • Displays rapidly shifting and shallow expression of emotions
  • Consistently uses their physical attention to draw attention to self
  • Has a style of speech that is excessively impressionistic and lacking in detail
  • Shows self-dramatisation, theatricality, and exaggerated expression of emotion
  • Is suggestible (that is, they are easily influenced by others or circumstances)
  • Considers relationships to be more intimate than they actually are

Experiencing and creating drama can release hormones that make you feel good, and it can ,in fact damage your social life. Drama, however, can be addictive, especially if it gets you the attention you are craving.

The exact cause of histrionic personality disorder is unknown. Scientists believe it is an outcome of both environmental and genetic factors.

Some families have a history of HPD, which lends credit to the theory that the condition may be explained in part by genetics. On the other hand, children of parents with HPD may simply exhibit behavior they learned from their parents. It is also possible that a lack of discipline or positive reinforcement of dramatic behaviors in childhood can cause HPD. A child may learn HPD behaviors as a way to get attention from their parents.

No matter the cause, HPD usually presents itself by early adulthood.

If you crave attention and fall into using unhealthy behaviours to get it, you can get help. You don’t have to rely on others for your confidence. The best source of self-esteem is feeling confident about yourself . otherwise , the love of others may never feel sincere to you.

Attention is good- if you are getting it in healthy ways. If you’re not, making changes and even going to therapy can help improve many areas of your life. You can build your self-esteem, develop healthier habits,and enjoy fulfilling, rewarding relationships.

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Psychotherapy is the most common and effective treatment choice for HPD. This kind of therapy involves talking to a therapist about your feelings and experiences. Such talks can help you and your therapist determine the reasoning behind your actions and behaviours. Your therapist may be able to help you learn how to relate with people in a positive manner, instead of continually trying to get attention from them.

Take the first step and help in fighting the menace of mental illness in our societies.

Dr Tracey Marks in her youtube channel delved more into this topic and here is the video to help you better understand HPD.

Nudity and Gender Representation in Artistic works

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The Decadence of the Romans, by Thomas Couture, 1847. Musée d’Orsay

One of the pertinent problems which artists face today in our societies is the negative impression associated with nudity. It is considered as immoral and pornographic. This may be due to religious backgrounds and traditional believes.

Artists and researchers have found a way to justify nudity as a form of art. For instance, nudity in paintings was introduced by colonial educators in most African countries. In Ghana it was introduced in 1960s at the Achimota college. Nude paintings were used in the study of objects. Models were used to learn the anatomical structure of the human figure to meet the artistic standards of the international market.

Figures with no clothes are peculiarly common in the art of the Western world. This situation might seem perfectly natural when one considers how frequent the state of undress is in every human life, from birth to the bath to the boudoir. In art, however, naked figures relate very little to these humble conditions and instead reflect a very complex set of formal ideals, philosophical concerns, and cultural traditions.

But the issue of gender representation has also become a pain in the butt. Many beliefs are attached to representation of especially female nudes in different societies.

Fragments of a marble statue of the Diadoumenos (youth tying a fillet around his head)
Photo: Courtesy

The ancestry of the female nude is distinct from the male. Male nudes originate from the perfect human athlete according to the art of ancient Greece where athletic competitions at religious festivals celebrated the human body, particularly the male, in an unparalleled way. The athletes in these contests competed in the nude, and the Greeks considered them embodiments of all that was best in humanity. It was thus perfectly natural for the Greeks to associate the male nude form with triumph, glory, and even moral excellence, values which seem immanent in the magnificent nudes of Greek sculpture. Images of naked male athletes stood as offerings in sanctuaries.

In contrast, female nudity was taboo and extremely frowned upon by the Greek culture. By the mid-fourth century BC when Praxiteles carved the first image of a goddess naked (the Knidian Aphrodite), the sculpture became the center of great controversy due to the fact that even partial nudity was rare in Greek art before the late fifth century BC: the only times female body parts were revealed was when women were victims of violence or represented as prostitutes. Thus, the nude sculpture of Aphrodite needed to be censored. For example, the genitals were not represented, non-existent.

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The Knidian Aphrodite. Courtesy

In French academic art, female nudity was only permissible within the context of a recognisable narrative in an imaginary, mythological or biblical landscape. However, forward-thinking artists portray women in a naturalistic form, engaged in everyday activities, undermining established clichés of femininity and eliminating the voyeurism associated with traditional nudes of the period.

Italy played a major role in the acceptance of female nude art. The lack of Christian influence at that time in Italy coupled with a period of peace through the Peace of Lodi from 1454 to 1494, helped create a period in which nude art could once again develop. Significantly, Botticelli’s Birth of Venus in Italy became an important painting which helped spark renewed interest in depicting nude figures and revive classical nudity. Birth of Venus was the first full-scale painting based on a classical theme while portraying the female nude as its principle subject.

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The Birth of Venus by Sandro Botticelli

In Birth of Venus, the central goddess of love represents “divine love” and was not created through any religious motivations. Here, Venus appears to be born of sea form and lies on top of the grand scallop shell, revealing everything. The Pompeii Venus shows no sign of modesty and her posture reflects one that conveys submissiveness by lying down backwards as if in a state of vulnerability, called the reclining nude. The reclining nude position soon becomes a trend that other Italians follow, creating a stark contrast with male nudes, who are more often as active, erect, and aggressive.

The Birth of Venus, changed the mindset of French revolutionists who started preaching for equality and liberty which made the female nude art popular.

Ultimately,the motivations and acceptance behind nudist works of arts in society are clearly influenced by increased political freedom. In the case of nudist female paintings, political freedom does not necessarily mean freedom for the country, but rather more political and social freedom compared to men — increased equality.

‘We can’t breathe’ Visible and ignored air pollution inside the homes in Syokimau


For over 3 years residents of Syokimau have been grappling to access clean air. For those 3 years, three heartbreaking words have been part of their diction…pollution, sickness and for some death.

Syokimau, a neighbourhood close to Kenya’s capital, Nairobi, is a middle-income residence. It’s a home to more than 5,000 people, many of them staying in two- or three-bedroom apartments.

But there are several factories – among them a steel mill, a cement manufacturing plant and an asphalt factory – dotted across the community, sitting close to residential blocks.

Every day, they wake up to the stench and dusty air. The children in the estate have developed breathing problems.

Rashidah and Nazir Hakada are a victim of this pollution by Endmor Steel millers according an expose by a local TV Station, Citizen TV.

They are still mourning their two-year-old daughter Hafsah who died in June 2019 after succumbing to acute respiratory tract infection, a condition in which the lungs are so inflamed that they cannot provide vital organs with enough oxygen.

Doctors associate the breathing in of high concentrations of smoke or chemical fumes as a potential cause of the condition.

Hafsah succumbed to acute respiratory tract infection

“Our daughter got breathing problems. She was admitted first in April. They discharged us. They once again admitted us in June because of the same problem. She only spent 48 hours there and she died,” Mr Hakada says.

The couple have two other children, and one of them was also recently admitted to hospital with breathing problems.

Despite the incessant air pollution emanating from the steel milling factory, authorities have looked the other way as families live in despair.

The World Health Organisation (WHO) reports that the level of fine particulate matter in the city’s outdoor air is 17 micrograms per cubic meter (µg/m3). This is 70% above the recommended maximum level.

This figure could even be higher given the absence of a robust monitoring system.

Outdoor (ambient) air pollution causes more than 3 million premature deaths globally each year and increases the risk of respiratory diseases and cardiovascular conditions.